VAK Learning (Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic)
|VAK Learning (Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic)|
| VAK is a popular pedagogical approach centred on the uses of three main sensory receivers: Visual, Audio, Kinesthetic (movement) to determine the dominant learning style of an individual. It was originally devised in the 1920s to assist teaching children with dyslexia. Subsequently, this has been more widely applied and its relevance established.
The human brain has evolved to operate and develop in a multisensory environment and we are programmed to process multisensory signals. Inputs, that are multisensory, provide different hooks for retrieving information allowing faster learning and improved recall. According to VAK theory, one or two of our sensory receivers are dominant, suggesting that learners have a natural preference for the way they learn. As such, there is an argument for matching teaching with learning styles to enhance the learning process, enabling trainers to address the needs of learners in a more efficient way. Yet, one style of learning may not always be the same for some tasks. Moreover, as the theory has evolved research has come to support the application of a range of activities during instruction to that of a single learning style: the learner may prefer one style of learning for one task, and a combination for a different task. The core value of the VAK learning theory is the enabling of people to think in terms of different representational systems. By combining different teaching methods and thinking about the different ways in which we process information, trainers can start to develop a multisensory learning environment. Rather than tailoring instructional techniques to each individual, a combination of simultaneous stimuli will enable a learning group to improve their retrieval, storage and interpretation of information.
Learning StylesFollowing is a brief description of different learning styles:
|Learning Style||Brief Description|
|Visual||There is an argument for two different types of visual learner:
|Activities and Tools to support VAK Learning|
VAK Learning for different learners
Note to instructors: You have the opportunity to try out all kinds of activities to reach the preferred learning styles of all learners
|Teaching Strategies: Learning Styles (Video, 5 mins)||Tips for teachers on how to engage learners with different learning styles.|
|Self-assessment||VARK: An online questionnaire allowing learners to identify their preferred learning style(s).|
- [City and Guilds, Centre for Skills Development “Understanding the VAK model and its application” by Nick Grist (2009) http://www.skillsdevelopment.org.uk/knowledge_portal/e-zine/autumn_2009/the_vak_model.aspx..
- Learning Skills & Development Agency: Learning Styles & their application for effective learning http://www.itslifejimbutnotasweknowit.org.uk/files/LearningStyles.pdf (12 August 2011), http://www.skillsdevelopment.org.uk/emailnews/autumn2009/article/article-understanding.html (12 August 2011), http://www.brainboxx.co.uk/a3_aspects/pages/VAK.htm (12 August 2011), http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/styles/vakt.html (12 August 2011)