Bloom’s Taxonomy

Bloom’s Taxonomy

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Term2.png BLOOM’S TAXONOMY
Classification of the different objectives and skills that educators set for learners. It is a hierarchical classification, which means that learning at higher levels is dependent on having attained prerequisite knowledge and skills at lower levels. It divides educational objectives into three domains, namely Cognitive, Affective and Psychomotor. Each domain is further divided into sub-categories.

In Bloom’s Taxonomy[1], the Cognitive domain relates to knowledge and intellect while the Affective domain deals with values and perception, and the Psychomotor domain focuses on developing or acquiring skills. One of the goals of the taxonomy is to motivate educators to focus on all three domains, creating a more holistic form of education. [2]

See also: A.D.D.I.E Model; Learning Objectives
Domain Sub-categories What Learners Do
Cognitive

(intellectual skills)

  • Knowledge
  • Comprehension
  • Application
  • Analysis
  • Synthesis
  • Evaluation


  • Remember
  • Understand
  • Apply
  • Analyze
  • Evaluate
  • Create
  • Recall information
  • Recall and interpret information
  • Use abstract information in concrete situations
  • Divide information into constituent parts
  • Build a structure or pattern from many disorganized elements
  • Assess the value of information


  • Retrieve from memory
  • Make sense of information
  • Use information that is learned
  • Use mental processes to differentiate between parts of information and determine connections
  • Interpret and reason to determine implications and make recommendations
  • Combine parts to form a whole/new configuration
Affective

(emotional areas)

  • Receiving
  • Responding
  • Valuing
  • Organization
  • Characterization or internalization
  • Be willing to hear and be open to experience
  • React
  • Attach values to a particular object or behaviour
  • Prioritize values and adapt behaviour to value system
  • Integrate values into a philosophy of life
Psychomotor

(manual or physical skills)

  • Reflex
  • Fundamental movements
  • Perceptual abilities
  • Physical abilities
  • Skilled movements
  • Non-discursive communication
  • Involuntary movements
  • Movements typical of young children
  • Distinguish
  • Change speed or direction of movements
  • For example: swim
  • For example: mime


During the learning process, it is possible to attain knowledge in four forms as indicated in the table below. Note that, on this continuum, Factual knowledge is classified as the more concrete form of knowledge while Meta-cognitive knowledge is classified as the more abstract form of knowledge.


Knowledge type Description
Factual

Basic information to understand subjects or solve problems. Examples: terminology, facts.

Conceptual

Knowledge of interconnections between elements that form a coherent whole. Examples: principles, theories.

Procedural

Specialised skills and techniques needed to perform tasks. Examples: methods, procedures.

Meta-cognitive

Tactical know-how for understanding and problem-solving, and self-awareness of the ideal conditions or processes for one’s own cognition. Example: self-knowledge about strategies to grasp knowledge, tools to comprehend complicated tasks.


Link icon.png Web Resources
Below you have a list of resources that provide additional information on different aspects of Bloom’s Taxonomy.
Link Content
Benjamin Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives/Erudium website Keywords and activities related to categories in the cognitive domain. The activities mentioned may be taken into consideration when designing a course. The website is available also in French.
Benjamin Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning Domains: Design and Evaluation Toolkit for Training and Learning Activities to be trained for each domain, as well as demonstration and evidence to be measured.
Bloom’s digital taxonomy, Wheel and Knowledge Dimension This is an interactive tool that gives concrete examples of activities for the Cognitive domain of Bloom’s Taxonomy including explanations of the associated types of knowledge.
Assessment & Instructional Alignment A 45-minute tutorial that shows how Bloom’s Taxonomy can be used to align course objectives, activities and assessments for enhancing learner experience.
Pinterest Board on Bloom's Taxonomy

(Infographics)

Check out Click4it's Pinterest Board on Bloom's Taxonomy and discover more on Bloom's Taxonomy!
4 different visual guides to Bloom’s Taxonomy An article explaining the meaning of Bloom’s Taxonomy through some pictures.

References

  1. Anderson and Krathwohl (2000) provide a slightly different interpretation of the kind of thinking involved at each stage, as learning progresses from lower to higher levels. Since ‘thinking’ is an action, the progression in learning is shown by using verbs instead of nouns.
  2. www.nwlink.com (22 April 2010), www.learningandteaching.info (22 April 2010), http://artsliteracyarts.wikispaces.com, http://www.celt.mmu.ac.uk, http://www.niu.edu/, http://www.utar.edu.my, https://sites.google.com/a/caldwellschools.com, http://www.celt.iastate.edu, http://www97.intel.com (16 July 2012), http://serc.carleton.edu (31 July 2012); Wasowski, Richard P., The Notebook Teacher's Guide, Wiley Publishing, Inc., 2009.